A brain hemorrhage refers to bleeding in the brain. This medical condition is also known as a brain bleed or an intracranial hemorrhage. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. The skull surrounds the brain, and any leaking blood from a hemorrhage can cause compression and damage to the brain tissues. If a blood vessel in the brain leaks or bursts and causes bleeding, a hemorrhagic stroke occurs.
Compression from excessive bleeding may be so severe that oxygen-rich blood is unable to flow to the brain tissue. A lack of oxygen in the brain can lead to swelling or cerebral edema. Pooled blood from a bleed can also collect into a mass known as a hematoma. The extra pressure of this can prevent oxygen from reaching brain cells, which can result in their death. In this article, learn more about Signs of a Brain Hemorrhage, its causes, how to recognize when one is occurring, and what to do.
Effects of Brain Hemorrhage Depending on Age
The effects of a brain hemorrhage vary within different age groups. Brain hemorrhages are most likely to occur in older adults. Most intracerebral hemorrhages that suddenly occur in children are due to anomalies in the blood vessels. Other possible causes include blood diseases, brain tumors, septicemia, or the use of alcohol or illicit drugs. In infants, a brain hemorrhage can occur due to a birth injury or blunt force trauma to a woman’s abdomen when she is pregnant. Symptoms and some of the treatment options are very similar in adults and children. Treatment in children depends on the location of the hemorrhage as well as the severity of the case.
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hemorrhages are more common in older adults, but they may also occur in children. According to the National Stroke Association, a stroke happens in about 1 in 4,000 live births. They are slightly more common in children under 2 years of age. Children typically recover from brain hemorrhages with better outcomes than adults as a child’s brain is still developing.
Causes of Brain Hemorrhage
A brain hemorrhage can occur for many causes.but most common causes are:
- Brain Tumor
- Liver Disease
- Head Trauma or Head Injury
- Blood Vessel Anomalies
- Consumption of Illicit Drugs
- Blood or Bleeding Disorders
- Extremely High Blood Pressure
- Cerebral Aneurysm, or a Weakened Bulge in a Brain Artery
Symptoms of Brain Hemorrhage
A brain hemorrhage can cause a range of different symptoms. These symptoms may include sudden tingling, weakness, numbness, or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg. This is most likely to occur on one side of the body only. Other symptoms may include seizures, difficulty swallowing, problems with vision, sudden severe headache, loss of balance or coordination, difficulty talking or slurred speech, confusion or difficulty understanding, stupor, lethargy, or unconsciousness. It is essential to recognize these symptoms quickly to allow treatment to start as soon as possible. A delay in treatment can bring you severe consequences it can even result in death.
Complications of Brain Hemorrhage
Physical therapy can be essential for recovering from some effects of a brain hemorrhage. Complications often arise from a brain hemorrhage. The bleeding prevents the nerve cells from communicating with other parts of the body and resuming normal function. Common problems after a brain hemorrhage include movement, speech, or memory issues. Depending on the location of hemorrhage and the damage that occurs, some complications may be permanent. These might include:
- Vision Loss
- Confusion or Memory Loss
- Difficulty Swallowing, or Dysphagia
- Personality Change or Emotional Problems
- Numbness or Weakness in Part of the Body
- Reduced Ability to Speak or Understand Words
Types of Brain Hemorrhage
There are several types of brain hemorrhages. The type depends on the location of the bleeding. Such as, the intracerebral hemorrhage type of bleeding occurs inside the brain. Subarachnoid hemorrhage type of bleeding occurs between the brain and the membranes that cover it. Subdural hemorrhage type of bleeding happens below the inner layer of the dura and above the brain. Epidural hemorrhage is when a bleed develops between the skull and the brain. All types of brain hemorrhage can pose a serious risk to health.